In a previous post I argued that Western philosophy is related to contemplative practices and traditions. I now want to look at traces of this relationship in the early history of Western philosophy, starting with Heraclitus. We have only fragments of his philosophy. And yet we have enough to trace a number of his trains of thought. There is much in the fragments – not just his most famous view that all is flux – that would be in line with the insights of many a contemplative tradition and practice:
Everything is one:
“Not having listened to me but to the principle (the logos) it is wise to agree that all is one.”
“On those who step into the same rivers ever different waters are flowing.”
“It is impossible to step into the same river. It scatters and regathers, comes together and dissolves, approaches and departs.”
Distrust of the senses and a desire to find the truth behind sense perception:
“Eyes and ears are bad witnesses for men if they have barbaric souls.”
“The true nature of things tends to hide itself.”
Non-duality / Unity in opposites:
“The divine is day night, winter summer, war peace, satiety hunger. But it takes different appearances like fire which, when mixed with incense, is named according to the savour of each.”
“The way up is also the way down.”
“Sea: water most pure and most tainted, drinkable and wholesome for fish, but undrinkable and poisonous for people.”
“But the general run of people are as unaware of their action while awake as they are of what they do while asleep.”
“The universe for those who are awake is single and common, while in sleep each person turns aside into a private universe.”
There are also hints in Heraclitus’ fragments regarding his method for achieving insights. One fragment simply says:
I searched for myself.
In itself it may not amount to much. But the work described here is an intentional effort. The verb that Heraclitus uses for “searching”, is one he also uses in a different fragment where he says that those digging or mining for gold find a lot of earth and not much else. So the journey inside oneself is not casual introspection but it is about digging deep to find valuable nuggets. And there are other hints that Heraclitus believed that a systematic inward focus is central to the philosophical enterprise. Elsewhere he says:
It is possible for all human beings to know themselves and to think reasonably.
And then there this further exploration of this theme in a fragment that says:
The limits of the soul you will not find walking, even if you wander down every road. Such a deep principle (logos) it contains.
This explains the point of Heraclitus’ inward journey. The soul itself contains the logos, the principle, or correct account which according to Heraclitus explains the truth about everything.
Elsewhere in Heraclitus’ fragments we see examples of why the inward search is necessary and how the soul contains the principle that also explains everything. By looking inward we can see how we reflect the way things are in the wider universe:
And the one and same: living and dead, awake and sleeping, young and old. For this is changing into that, and that changing back into this again.
That is to say within ourselves we can experience the non-dualism and the one-ness that Heraclitus also sees in the external world.
And there is a further physical reason, why the journey into the soul can teach us truths about the universe. Heraclitus believes that fire is an important element in the universe. He says that the universe is an eternal fire. Elsewhere he says that thunderbolt rules the universe. (An ancient commentator took thunderbolt to be the same as the universal fire though ancient Greeks would also have associated the thunderbolt with Zeus.)
Heraclitus also thought the soul had attributes of fire. But only if it was maintained in such a way to be dry and hot. Moisture and water, he thought, were the death of the soul. There are also fragments that suggest that the soul maintained its fieriness through righteous conduct. In other words the ability to find the fire that reflects the matter of the universe and to find the logos of the soul which is the same as the wider principle, the right account of everything, depends on the righteous conduct of the searcher. That also explains the fragment that says eyes and ears are bad witnesses for the people with barbaric souls. (The word barbaric doesn’t necessarily imply badly behaved, it may merely be a reference to speaking in an unintelligible language.) The corrupted soul simply doesn’t reflect things right, giving a scrambled account of what people see.
So one of the earliest philosophers in Western philosophy has a method of journeying into the soul to explore wider truths. There he finds one-ness in seeming dualism. In the soul he also finds the guiding principle of everything, the logos. This leads to an ethical argument about maintaining the soul in a fit state so that it properly reflects the truth about things.
And from there all flows.